Exercise during pregnancy Pregnancy day by day
Exercise during pregnancy
Therapeutic exercise is used as a restorative prophylactic agent during pregnancy in preparation for childbirth and the postpartum period.
During pregnancy there is a change of a number of physiological functions due to the development of the fetus and the restructuring of the activities of the woman’s body. High demands are placed on the heart of future moms. With the increase in the size and weight of a woman’s body, the growth of the uterus, increasing the total mass of circulating blood, the appearance of the placental circulation, growth and development of the
fetus, the heart is pregnant must have a powerful backup power and a high capacity to adapt to a great physical effort (labor) and hemodynamic fluctuations (the third stage of labor, postpartum period).
Exercise has a positive impact on the health and wellbeing of mothers according to this scheme: therapeutic exercises – improvement of motor activity – the economization of physiological processes – later development of fatigue.
Changes occur in respiratory function: in connection with the intensification of oxidative processes in the organism of the pregnant woman requires more oxygen. The high standing of the diaphragm in the second half of pregnancy and, as a consequence, the reduction of the tour leads to the formation of the thoracic type of breathing and reduced pulmonary ventilation, thus, can form an oxygen deficiency. As a result of practice breathing exercises to increase lung ventilation, reducing hypoxia and enhance the oxidation processes, and also acquired the skills of breath control – prevention of intrauterine asphyxia of the fetus during childbirth. Abdominal breathing, increasing venous blood flow in the vessels of the abdominal cavity, helps to eliminate stagnation in the abdominal cavity and pelvis and provides favorable conditions for the heart.
Good functional state of the heart and respiratory system to ensure proper blood supply to the developing embryo, and the purpose of exercise, starting with early pregnancy can be considered as one of the preventive measures on antenatal protection of the fetus.
Also the use of exercise to a certain extent is the prevention of prolapse of the internal organs of the abdomen after childbirth (due to stretching of the abdominal wall). To prevent tearing of the perineum is necessary to strengthen pelvic floor muscles and increase their elasticity, and the muscles of the perineum will be the prevention of prolapse of the pelvic floor in the postpartum period and complications caused by weakness of the pelvic diaphragm (the prolapse of the vagina, functional incontinence). Exercises for the abdominals and pelvic floor, raising and lowering intra-abdominal pressure, contribute to the promotion of intestinal content and reduces its atonic condition. Therapeutic exercises are effective for prophylaxis often developing during pregnancy flat feet and also to prevent varicose veins in the legs. The main goal of gymnastics is to contribute to the favorable course of pregnancy and childbirth and the full development of the fetus.
Indications and contraindications for exercise
In early pregnancy should pay special attention to the intensity of the load. Heavy physical exercise is strictly prohibited.
Doctors believe that if before pregnancy you don’t play sports, at drawing up of gymnastic exercises should be based on minimum load — until the middle of the second trimester, i.e. before the 20th week, when the placenta begins to operate “full force” and can adequately provide the growing baby with oxygen. If you are actively engaged in any sport before pregnancy, then — provided that your sport safe, and with a corresponding decrease in rhythm practice — you can continue “career” and in the first trimester of pregnancy.
You can perform any exercise from any source other than “swing press”, as well as different kinds of jumps and jerks (and not only in the first trimester, but throughout the pregnancy). The first relates to the risk of miscarriage in the early stages: the tension of the abdominal muscles may increase uterine tone and to contribute to its contractions, which is highly undesirable. The second is because during pregnancy produced substance softening ligaments. This is very important, because it allows the joints of the pelvic bones “to disperse” during childbirth. However, with the condition of the ligaments involves increased risk of injury when jumping or jerking.
You cannot go Jogging throughout the pregnancy. Fast and heavy traffic is dangerous not only because they can provoke uterine tone, and because the body does not have time to recycle all by-products.
Contraindications for exercise during pregnancy:
* Acute fevers and infectious diseases
• Suppurative processes
• Decompensated state in diseases of the cardiovascular system
• Advanced and decompensated forms of tuberculosis
• Pronounced toxemia of pregnancy (pernicious vomiting, edema, nephropathy, pre-eclampsia)
• Uterine bleeding during pregnancy
• Placenta previa
• Familiar nevynosimost
• Threatened miscarriage
You should limit the load and with special attention to the selection of exercises, if:
you suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular system;
you have high or low blood pressure;
you have a very low weight or obesity;
you suffer from diseases of the muscles and/or joints;
previously had a premature birth;
you are expecting twins (triplets, etc.);
you had (have) isthmic-cervical insufficiency (cervical condition, not allowing it to handle the load that bears fruit);
the position of the placenta is not correct (is laying low, previa, etc.) or there are other factors contributing to the threat of miscarriage.
Should immediately stop exercising if
you are dizzy or headache;
the surroundings suddenly became clearly visible;
I was short of breath;
began intense contractions of the uterus (small cut represent a normal response to exercise);
you feel palpitations (usually heart rate in pregnant woman at rest is up to 100 BPM during physical exercise, the heart rate can increase up to 140 BPM).
The basic principles of exercise for pregnant women:
In order for exercise to be most useful, you need to follow a few General rules.
1. Classes should be regular — at least 3 times a week for 15-20 minutes. One or two classes, you can substitute water aerobics — exercise in the pool.
2. You must choose a system consisting of exercises tailored to your fitness, and flow features of gestational age and individual preferences.
3. For maximum effect, exercise must be performed on a long time— preferably throughout pregnancy (and during and after childbirth).
4. The load shall be increased gradually — this allows you to develop the skills to manage their own bodies, coordination of movements, ability to maintain balance.
5. During the execution of complex exercises you need to constantly monitor their health.
On average, any exercise program lasts 45 – 50 minutes and consists of three parts:
1. Chapeau — dynamic breathing exercises, relaxation of individual muscles.
2. The bulk of exercises that strengthen large muscle groups of the body, pelvic floor muscles, increase joint mobility, breathing exercises with intense abdominal muscles.
3. The final part of the breathing exercises, relaxation.